The transactions here pertain to Gray Network Services, our imaginary small sole proprietorship business.
For account titles, we will be using the chart of accounts presented in an earlier lesson.
All transactions are assumed and simplified for illustration purposes.
Note: We will also be using this set of transactions and journal entries in later lessons when we discuss the other steps of the accounting process.
Transaction #1: On December 1, 2013, Mr. Donald Gray started Gray Network Services by investing $10,000. The journal entry should increase the company's Cash, and establish/increase the capital account of Mr. Gray; hence:
|Mr. Gray, Capital||10,000.00|
Transaction #2: On December 5, Gray Network Services paid registration and licensing fees for the business, $370.
First, we will debit the expense (to increase an expense, you debit it); and then, credit Cash to record the decrease in cash as a result of the payment.
|5||Taxes and Licenses||370.00|
Transaction #3: On December 6, the company acquired tables, chairs, shelves, and other fixtures for a total of $3,000. The entire amount was paid in cash.
There is an increase in an asset account (Furniture and Fixtures) in exchange for a decrease in another asset (Cash).
|6||Furniture and Fixtures||3,000.00|
Transaction #4: On December 7, the company acquired service equipment at $16,000. The company paid a 50% down payment and the balance will be paid after 60 days.
This will result in a compound journal entry. There is an increase in an asset account (debit Service Equipment, $16,000), a decrease in another asset (credit Cash, $8,000 – the amount paid), and an increase in a liability account (credit Accounts Payable, $8,000 – the balance to be paid after 60 days).
Transaction #5: Also on December 7, Gray Network Services purchased service supplies on account amounting to $1,500.
The company received supplies thus we will record a debit to increase supplies. By the terms "on account", it means that the amount has not yet been paid; and so, it is recorded as a liability of the company.
Transaction #6: On December 9, the company received $1,900 for services rendered. We will then record an increase in cash (debit the cash account) and increase in income (credit the income account).
Transaction #7: On December 12, the company rendered services on account, $4,250.00. As per agreement with the customer, the amount is to be collected after 5 days. Under the accrual basis of accounting, income is recorded when earned.
In this transaction, the services have been fully rendered (meaning, we made an income; we just haven't collected it yet.) Hence, we record an increase in income and an increase in a receivable account.
Transaction #8: On December 14, Mr. Gray invested an additional $3,200.00 into the business. The entry would be similar to what we did in transaction #1, i.e. increase cash and increase the capital account of the owner.
|Mr. Gray, Capital||3,200.00|
Transaction #9: Rendered services to a big corporation on December 15. As per agreement, the $3,400 amount due will be collected after 30 days.
Transaction #10: On December 17, the company collected from the customer in transaction #7. We will record an increase in cash by debiting it. Then, we will credit accounts receivable to decrease it. We are actually reducing the receivable since it has already been collected.
Transaction #11: On December 20, the company paid some of its liability in transaction #5 by issuing a check. The company paid $500 of the $1,500 payable.
To record this transaction, we will debit Accounts Payable for $500 to decrease it by that amount. Then, we will credit cash to decrease it as a result of the payment. The entry would be:
The balance of the accounts payable in transaction number #6 would now be $1,000 credit ($1,500 initial credit and now a $500 debit).
Transaction #12: On December 25, the owner withdrew cash due to an emergency need. Mr. Gray withdrew $7,000 from the company.
Naturally, there is a decrease in Cash since the company paid Mr. Gray $7,000. And, we will increase/record withdrawals (Mr. Gray, Drawing) for the said amount.
|25||Mr. Gray, Drawings||7,000.00|
Transaction # 13: On December 29, the company paid rent for December, $ 1,500. Again, we will record the expense by debiting it and decrease cash by crediting it.
Transaction #14: On December 30, the company acquired a $12,000 short-term bank loan; the entire amount plus a 10% interest is payable after 1 year.
Again, the company received cash so we increase it by debiting Cash. The company now has a liability (Loans Payable). We increase it by crediting the liability account.
Transaction #15: On December 31, the company paid salaries to its employees, $3,500.
For this transaction, we will record/increase the expense account by debiting it and decrease cash by crediting it. (Note: This is a simplified entry to present the payment of salaries. In actual practice, different payroll accounting methods are applied.)
There you have it. You should be getting the hang of it by now. If not, then you can always go back to the examples above. Remember that accounting skills require practice and exposure.