# Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis

Checked for updates, April 2022. Accountingverse.com
8 Lessons
Lesson 1

## Assumptions in CVP Analysis

Cost-volume-profit analysis (CVP analysis) helps a business in planning and decision-making. The CVP analysis is subject to the certain limiting assumptions. Learn about them here.
Lesson 2

## Contribution Margin

The concept of contribution margin is fundamental in CVP analysis and other management accounting topics. Contribution margin refers to sales revenue minus total variable costs. It is the amount available to cover fixed costs to be able to generate profits.
Lesson 3

## Break-Even Point Analysis

The determination of the break-even point is one of the applications of cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis. Break-even point refers to the level of activity or sales that will yield to zero profit.
Lesson 4

## Target Profit (Desired Income)

By tweaking the break-even formula and incorporating a desired profit, we can determine the number of units to sell to be able to generate the income desired.
Lesson 5

## Margin of Safety

The margin of safety is a measure of the difference between the actual (or budgeted sales) and the break-even sales. It determines the level by which sales can drop before a business incurs in losses.
Lesson 6

## Degree of Operating Leverage

The degree of operating leverage (DOL) is used to measure the extent of the change in operating income resulting from change in sales. It basically answers the question: "By how many times will operating profit increase or decrease in relation to the increase or decrease in sales?".
Lesson 7

## Multi-Product Break-Even Analysis

The determination of the break-even point in CVP analysis is easy once the variable and fixed components of costs have been determined. A problem arises when the company sells more than one type of product.
Lesson 8

## Variable and Absorption Costing

Absorption costing (or full costing) is the acceptable method for tax and external reporting. Variable costing (or direct costing) is not permitted but offers valuable use internally. Learn about the difference between variable and absorption costing.
Chapter Contents

Cost-volume-profit analysis (CVP analysis) deals with how profit and costs change with a change in volume. By studying the relationships between these items, management has better control over its planning and decision-making functions.

CVP analysis, despite being very useful, is subject to several limitations. Certain assumptions must be kept in mind when using and applying CVP analysis concepts.

By analyzing the effect of change in volume to costs and profits, we can determine the break-even point, sales required to achieve a target income, margin of safety, and degree of operating leverage. These topics are discussed in detail in this chapter.

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